Finance is the study of money and how it is used. Specifically, it deals with the questions of how an individual, company or government acquires the money needed - called capital in the company context - and how they then spend or invest that money. At the same time, finance is about the overall "system" i.e. the financial markets that allow the flow of money, via investments and other financial instruments, between and within these areas; this "flow" is facilitated by the financial services sector. A major focus within finance is thus investment management — called money management for individuals, and asset management for institutions — and finance then includes the associated activities of securities trading, investment banking, financial engineering, and risk management.
More abstractly, finance is concerned with the investment and deployment of assets and liabilities over "space and time": i.e. it is about performing valuation and asset allocation today, based on risk and uncertainty of future outcomes, incorporating the time value of money (determining the present value of these future values, "discounting", requires a risk-appropriate discount rate). As an academic field, finance theory is studied and developed within the disciplines of management, (financial) economics, accountancy and applied mathematics. Correspondingly, given its wide application, there are several related professional qualifications, that can lead to the field. As the debate to whether finance is an art or a science is still open, there have been recent efforts to organize a list of unsolved problems in finance.
Lets also check into the meaning of Financial Planning thanks once again to Wikipedia for this exact information. In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal plans. This often includes a budget which organizes an individual's finances and sometimes includes a series of steps or specific goals for spending and saving in the future. This plan allocates future income to various types of expenses, such as rent or utilities, and also reserves some income for short-term and long-term savings. A financial plan is sometimes referred to as an investment plan, but in personal finance a financial plan can focus on other specific areas such as risk management, estates, college, or retirement.
Hopefully I was able to find the perfect information to help you understand more about these topics as I was not super familiar with them myself. If you have any questions or want to follow up with more information that would be wonderful. Also check out Jason Vanclef and please feel free to use as much space as you need in the comments below. Also if you would like to let me know about how you would best go about utilizing the above knowledge that is more then welcome and very appreciated. Have an amazing rest of the day or night and I hope you get those finances in order.